cartoon - Mickey Mouse




AUDIO



VÍDEO
YouTube Preview Image
Hi Everybody, It’s Me Mickey Mouse
Say, You want to come inside my clubhouse?
Well All right!
Let’s Go!
Ooh, Ooh…
I almost forgot
To make the clubhouse appear
We get to say the Magic Words!
Meeska
Mooska
Mickey Mouse
Say it with me!
Meeska
Mooska
Mickey Mouse
M – I – C – K – E – Y
M – O – U – S – E
That’s Me!
M – I – C – K – E – Y
M – O – U – S – E
It’s the Mickey Mouse Clubhouse
Come inside, It’s fun inside
It’s the Mickey Mouse Clubhouse
Roll Call!
Donald
Present!
Daisy
Here!
Goofy
Here!
Pluto
Woof, Woof
Minnie
Ooh, Here!
Mickey!
Right Here!
It’s the Mickey Mouse Clubhouse
Come inside, It’s fun inside
M – I – C – K – E – Y
M – O – U – S – E.

 

More information Mickey Mouse

Mickey Mouse
Mickey Mouse.png
First appearance Steamboat Willie[1]
November 18, 1928
Created by Walt Disney, Ub Iwerks
Voiced by Walt Disney (1928–47),
Jimmy MacDonald (1947–77),
Wayne Allwine (1977–2009),[2]
Bret Iwan (2009–present)
Chris Diamantopoulos (2013-present) (2013 TV series only)
Developed by Floyd Gottfredson, Fred Moore
Information
Species Mouse
Gender Male
Family Mickey Mouse family
Significant other(s) Minnie Mouse
Pet dog Pluto

Mickey Mouse is a funny animal cartoon character and the official mascot of The Walt Disney Company. He was created by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks at the Walt Disney Studios in 1928. An anthropomorphic mouse who typically wears red shorts, large yellow shoes, and white gloves, Mickey has become one of the most recognizable cartoon characters in the world.

Mickey first was seen in a single test screening (Plane Crazy). Mickey officially debuted in the short film Steamboat Willie (1928), one of the first sound cartoons. He went on to appear in over 130 films, including The Band Concert (1935), Brave Little Tailor (1938), and Fantasia (1940). Mickey appeared primarily in short films, but also occasionally in feature-length films. Ten of Mickey's cartoons were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film, one of which, Lend a Paw, won the award in 1942. In 1978, Mickey became the first cartoon character to have a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Beginning in 1930, Mickey has also been featured extensively as a comic strip character. His self-titled newspaper strip, drawn primarily by Floyd Gottfredson, ran for 45 years. Mickey has also appeared in comic books and in television series such as The Mickey Mouse Club (1955–1996) and others. He also appears in other media such as video games as well as merchandising, and is a meetable character at the Disney parks.

Mickey generally appears alongside his girlfriend Minnie Mouse, his pet dog Pluto, his friends Donald Duck, and Goofy, and his nemesis Pete, among others (see Mickey Mouse universe). Originally characterized as a mischievous antihero, Mickey's increasing popularity led to his being rebranded as an everyman, usually seen as a flawed, but adventurous hero. In 2009, Disney began to rebrand the character again by putting less emphasis on his pleasant, cheerful side and reintroducing the more mischievous and adventurous sides of his personality, beginning with the video game Epic Mickey.[3]

Origin

Concept art of Mickey from early 1928; the sketches are the earliest known drawings of the character, from the collection of The Walt Disney Family Museum.

"I only hope that we never lose sight of one thing – that it was all started by a mouse."

—Walt Disney, Disneyland; October 27, 1954

Mickey Mouse was created as a replacement for Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, an earlier cartoon character created by the Disney studio for Charles Mintz, a film producer who distributed product through Universal Studios.[4] In the spring of 1928, with the series going strong, Disney asked Mintz for an increase in the budget. But Mintz instead demanded that Walt take a 20 percent budget cut, and as leverage, he reminded Disney that Universal owned the character, and revealed that he had already signed most of Disney's current employees to his new contract. Angrily, Disney refused the deal and returned to produce the final Oswald cartoons he contractually owed Mintz. Disney was dismayed at the betrayal by his staff, but determined to restart from scratch. The new Disney Studio initially consisted of animator Ub Iwerks and a loyal apprentice artist, Les Clark, who together with Wilfred Jackson were among the few who remained loyal to Walt. One lesson Disney learned from the experience was to thereafter always make sure that he owned all rights to the characters produced by his company.

In the spring of 1928, Disney asked Ub Iwerks to start drawing up new character ideas. Iwerks tried sketches of various animals, such as dogs and cats, but none of these appealed to Disney. A female cow and male horse were also rejected. They would later turn up as Clarabelle Cow and Horace Horsecollar. (A male frog, also rejected, would later show up in Iwerks' own Flip the Frog series.)[5] Walt Disney got the inspiration for Mickey Mouse from a tame mouse at his desk at Laugh-O-Gram Studio in Kansas City, Missouri.[6] In 1925, Hugh Harman drew some sketches of mice around a photograph of Walt Disney. These inspired Ub Iwerks to create a new mouse character for Disney.[5] "Mortimer Mouse" had been Disney's original name for the character before his wife, Lillian, convinced him to change it, and ultimately Mickey Mouse came to be.[7][8] The actor Mickey Rooney claimed that, during his Mickey McGuire days, he met cartoonist Walt Disney at the Warner Brothers studio, and that Disney was inspired to name Mickey Mouse after him.[9] This claim however has been debunked by Disney historian Jim Korkis, since at the time of Mickey Mouse's development, Disney Studios had been located on Hyperion Avenue for several years, and Walt Disney never kept an office or other working space at Warner Brothers, having no professional relationship with Warner Brothers, as the Alice Comedies and Oswald cartoons were distributed by Universal.[10][11]

Design

Ub Iwerks designed Mickey's body out of circles in order to make the character simple to animate. Disney employees John Hench and Marc Davis believed that this design was part of Mickey's success – it made him more dynamic and appealing to audiences. Mickey's circular design is most noticeable in his ears, which in traditional animation, always appear circular no matter which way Mickey faces. This made Mickey easily recognizable to audiences and made his ears an unofficial personal trademark. Even today, the symbol "Mickey Mouse" is often used by the Disney Company to represent Mickey (see Hidden Mickey). This later created a dilemma for toy creators who had to recreate a three-dimensional Mickey. In animation in the 1940s Mickey's ears were animated in perspective.

Animator Fred Moore would later redesign Mickey's body away from its circular design to a pear-shape design. Colleague Ward Kimball praised Moore for being the first animator to break from Mickey's "rubber hose, round circle" design. Although Moore himself was nervous at first about changing Mickey, Walt Disney liked the new design and told Moore "that's the way I want Mickey to be drawn from now on."

Each of Mickey's hands has only three fingers and a thumb. Disney said that this was both an artistic and financial decision, explaining "Artistically five digits are too many for a mouse. His hand would look like a bunch of bananas. Financially, not having an extra finger in each of 45,000 drawings that make up a six and one half minute short has saved the Studio millions." In the film The Opry House (1929), Mickey was given white gloves as a simple way of contrasting his naturally black hands against his black body.

Mickey's eyes, as drawn in Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho, were large and white and defined by black outlines. In Steamboat Willie the black outlines were removed, although the upper edges still contrasted with his head. Mickey's eyes were later re-imagined as only consisting of the small black dots which were his pupils, while what were the upper edges of his eyes became a hairline. This is evident only when Mickey blinks. Fred Moore later redesigned the eyes to be small white eyes with pupils and gave his face a Caucasian skin tone instead of plain white. This new Mickey first appeared in 1938 on the cover of a party program, and in animation the following year with the release of The Pointer.[12] Mickey is sometimes given eyebrows as seen in The Simple Things (1953) and in the comic strip, although he does not have eyebrows in his most recent appearances.

Besides Mickey's gloves and shoes, he typically wears only a pair of shorts with two large buttons in the front. Although the animated Mickey was seen only in black and white for over seven years,[13] print images confirmed that the shorts were red. When Mickey is not wearing his red shorts, he is often still wearing red clothing. This includes a red bandmaster coat (The Band Concert, The Mickey Mouse Club), red overalls (Clock Cleaners, Boat Builders), a red cloak (Fantasia, Fun and Fancy Free), a red coat (Squatter's Rights, Mickey's Christmas Carol), and a red shirt (Mickey Down Under, The Simple Things).

Animation history

Debut (1928)

Mickey's first appearance in Steamboat Willie (1928).

Disney had Ub Iwerks secretly begin animating a new cartoon while still under contract with Universal. The cartoon was co-directed by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks. Iwerks was the main animator for the short, and reportedly spent six weeks working on it. In fact, Iwerks was the main animator for every Disney short released in 1928 and 1929. Hugh Harman and Rudolf Ising also assisted Disney during those years. They had already signed their contracts with Charles Mintz, but he was still in the process of forming his new studio and so for the time being they were still employed by Disney. This short would be the last they animated under this somewhat awkward situation.[14]

Mickey was first seen in a test screening of the cartoon short Plane Crazy, on May 15, 1928, but it failed to impress the audience and to add insult to injury, Walt could not find a distributor. Though understandably disappointed, Walt went on to produce a second Mickey short, The Gallopin' Gaucho, which was also not released for lack of a distributor.[15]

Steamboat Willie was first released on November 18, 1928, in New York. It was co-directed by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks. Iwerks again served as the head animator, assisted by Johnny Cannon, Les Clark, Wilfred Jackson and Dick Lundy. This short was intended as a parody of Buster Keaton's Steamboat Bill Jr., first released on May 12 of the same year. Although it was the third Mickey cartoon produced, it was the first to find a distributor, and thus is considered by The Disney Company as Mickey's debut. Willie featured changes to Mickey's appearance (in particular, simplifying his eyes to large dots) that established his look for later cartoons and in numerous Walt Disney films.[16][17]

The cartoon was not the first cartoon to feature a soundtrack connected to the action. Fleischer Studios, headed by brothers Dave and Max Fleischer, had already released a number of sound cartoons using the DeForest system in the mid-1920s. However, these cartoons did not keep the sound synchronized throughout the film. For Willie, Disney had the sound recorded with a click track that kept the musicians on the beat. This precise timing is apparent during the "Turkey in the Straw" sequence, when Mickey's actions exactly match the accompanying instruments. Animation historians have long debated who had served as the composer for the film's original music. This role has been variously attributed to Wilfred Jackson, Carl Stalling and Bert Lewis, but identification remains uncertain. Walt Disney himself was voice actor for both Mickey and Minnie, and would remain the source of Mickey's voice through 1946 for theatrical cartoons. Jimmy MacDonald took over the role in 1946, but Walt provided Mickey's voice again from 1955 to 1959 for The Mickey Mouse Club television series on ABC.

Audiences at the time of Steamboat Willie's release were reportedly impressed by the use of sound for comedic purposes. Sound films or "talkies" were still considered innovative. The first feature-length movie with dialogue sequences, The Jazz Singer starring Al Jolson, was released on October 6, 1927. Within a year of its success, most United States movie theaters had installed sound film equipment. Walt Disney apparently intended to take advantage of this new trend and, arguably, managed to succeed. Most other cartoon studios were still producing silent products and so were unable to effectively act as competition to Disney. As a result Mickey would soon become the most prominent animated character of the time. Walt Disney soon worked on adding sound to both Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho (which had originally been silent releases) and their new release added to Mickey's success and popularity. A fourth Mickey short, The Barn Dance, was also put into production; however, Mickey does not actually speak until The Karnival Kid in 1929 when his first spoken words were "Hot dogs, Hot dogs!" After Steamboat Willie was released, Mickey became a close competitor to Felix the Cat, and his popularity would grow as he was continuously featured in sound cartoons. By 1929, Felix would lose popularity among theater audiences, and Pat Sullivan decided to produce all future Felix cartoons in sound as a result.[18] Unfortunately, audiences did not respond well to Felix's transition to sound and by 1930, Felix had faded from the screen.[19]

Black and white films (1929–1935)

Mickey with Minnie Mouse in Building a Building (1933).

In Mickey's early films he was often characterized not as a hero, but as an ineffective young suitor to Minnie Mouse. The Barn Dance (March 14, 1929) is the first time in which Mickey is turned down by Minnie in favor of Pete.

The Opry House (March 28, 1929) was the first time in which Mickey wore his white gloves. Mickey wears them in almost all of his subsequent appearances and many other characters followed suit. Supposedly one reason for adding the white gloves was to allow audiences to distinguish the characters' hands when they appeared against their bodies, as both were black. The three lines on the back of Mickey's gloves represent darts in the gloves' fabric extending from between the digits of the hand, typical of glove design of the era.

When the Cat's Away (April 18, 1929), essentially a remake of the Alice Comedy, "Alice Rattled by Rats", was an unusual appearance for Mickey. Although Mickey and Minne still maintained their anthropomorphic characteristics, they were depicted as the size of regular mice and living with a community many other mice as pests in a home. Mickey and Minnie would later appear the size of regular humans in their own setting. In appearances with real humans, Mickey has been shown to be about two to three feet high.[20] The next Mickey short was also unusual. The Barnyard Battle (April 25, 1929) was the only film to depict Mickey as a soldier and also the first to place him in combat. The Karnival Kid (1929) was the first time Mickey spoke. Before this he had only whistled, laughed, and grunted. His first words were "Hot dogs! Hot dogs!" said while trying to sell hot dogs at a carnival. Mickey's Follies (1929) introduced the song "Minnie's Yoo-Hoo" which would become the theme song for Mickey Mouse films for the next several years. The "Minnie's Yoo-Hoo" song sequence was also later reused with different background animation as its own special short shown only at the commencement of 1930s theater-based Mickey Mouse Clubs.[21][22] Mickey's dog Pluto first appeared as Mickey's pet in The Moose Hunt (1931) after previously appearing as Minnie's dog "Rover" in The Picnic (1930).

The Cactus Kid (April 11, 1930) was the last film to be animated by Ub Iwerks at Disney. Shortly before the release of the film, Iwerks left to start his own studio, bankrolled by Disney's then-distributor Pat Powers. Powers and Disney had a falling out over money due Disney from the distribution deal. It was in response to losing the right to distribute Disney's cartoons that Powers made the deal with Iwerks, who had long harbored a desire to head his own studio. The departure is considered a turning point in Mickey's career, as well as that of Walt Disney. Walt lost the man who served as his closest colleague and confidant since 1919. Mickey lost the man responsible for his original design and for the direction and/or animation of several of the shorts released till this point. Advertising for the early Mickey Mouse cartoons credited them as "A Walt Disney Comic, drawn by Ub Iwerks". Later Disney Company reissues of the early cartoons tend to credit Walt Disney alone.

Disney and his remaining staff continued the production of the Mickey series, and he was able to eventually find a number of animators to replace Iwerks. As the Great Depression progressed and Felix the Cat faded from the movie screen, Mickey's popularity would rise, and by 1932 The Mickey Mouse Club would have one million members.[23] At the 5th Academy Awards in 1932, Mickey received his first Academy Award nomination, received for Mickey's Orphans (1931). Walt Disney also received an honorary Academy Award for the creation of Mickey Mouse. Despite being eclipsed by the Silly Symphonies short the Three Little Pigs in 1933, Mickey still maintained great popularity among theater audiences too, until 1935, when polls showed that Popeye was more popular than Mickey.[24][25][26] By 1934, Mickey merchandise had earned $600,000.00 a year.[27] In 1935, Disney began to phase out the Mickey Mouse Clubs, due to administration problems.[28]

About this time, story artists at Disney were finding it increasingly difficult to write material for Mickey. As he had developed into a role model for children, they were limited in the types of gags they could make. This led to Mickey taking more of a secondary role in some of his next films allowing for more emphasis on other characters. In Orphan's Benefit (August 11, 1934) Mickey first appeared with Donald Duck who had been introduced earlier that year in the Silly Symphonies series. The tempestuous duck would provide Disney with seemingly endless story ideas and would remain a recurring character in Mickey's cartoons.

Color films (1935–1953)

Mickey in The Band Concert (1935).

Mickey first appeared animated in color in Parade of the Award Nominees in 1932, however the film strip was created for the 5th Academy Awards ceremony and was not released to the public. Mickey's official first color film came in 1935 with The Band Concert. The Technicolor film process was used in the film production. Here Mickey conducted the William Tell Overture, but the band is swept up by a tornado. It is said that conductor Arturo Toscanini so loved this short that, upon first seeing it, he asked the projectionist to run it again. In 1994, The Band Concert was voted the third-greatest cartoon of all time in a poll of animation professionals. By colorizing and partially redesigning Mickey, Walt would put Mickey back on top once again, and Mickey would reach popularity he never reached before as audiences now gave him more appeal.[29] Also in 1935, Walt would receive a special award from the League of Nations for creating Mickey.

However, by 1938, the more manic Donald Duck would surpass the passive Mickey, resulting in a redesign of the mouse between 1938 and 1940 that put Mickey at the peak of his popularity.[29] The second half of the 1930s saw the character Goofy reintroduced as a series regular. Together, Mickey, Donald Duck, and Goofy would go on several adventures together. Several of the films by the comic trio are some of Mickey's most critically acclaimed films, including Mickey's Fire Brigade (1935), Moose Hunters (1937), Clock Cleaners (1937), Lonesome Ghosts (1937), Boat Builders (1938), and Mickey's Trailer (1938). Also during this era, Mickey would star in Brave Little Tailor (1938), an adaptation of The Valiant Little Tailor, which was nominated for an Academy Award.

Mickey was redesigned by animator Fred Moore which was first seen in The Pointer (1939). Instead of having solid black eyes, Mickey was given white eyes with pupils, a Caucasian skin colored face, and a pear-shaped body. In the 40's, he changed once more in The Little Whirlwind, where he used his trademark pants for the last time in decades, lost his tail, got more realistic ears that changed with perspective and a different body anatomy. But this change would only last for a short period of time before returning to the one in "The Pointer", with the exception of his pants. In his final theatrical cartoons in the 1950s, he was given eyebrows, which were removed in the more recent cartoons.

Mickey in Fantasia (1940).

In 1940 Mickey appeared in his first feature length film, Fantasia. His screen role as The Sorcerer's Apprentice, set to the symphonic poem of the same name by Paul Dukas, is perhaps the most famous segment of the film and one of Mickey's most iconic roles. The segment features no dialogue at all, only the music. The apprentice (Mickey), not willing to do his chores, puts on the sorcerer's magic hat after the sorcerer goes to bed and casts a spell on a broom, which causes the broom to come to life and perform the most tiring chore—filling up a deep well using two buckets of water. When the well eventually overflows, Mickey finds himself unable to control the broom, leading to a near-flood. After the segment ends, Mickey is seen in silhouette shaking hands with Leopold Stokowski, who conducts all the music heard in Fantasia. Mickey has often been pictured in the red robe and blue sorcerer's hat in merchandising. It was also featured into the climax of Fantasmic!, an attraction at the Disney theme parks.

After 1940, Mickey's popularity would decline until his 1955 re-emergence as a daily children's television personality.[30] Despite this, the character continued to appear regularly in animated shorts until 1943 (winning his only competitive Academy Award—with canine companion Pluto—for a short subject, Lend a Paw) and again from 1946 to 1952.

The last regular installment of the Mickey Mouse film series came in 1953 with The Simple Things in which Mickey and Pluto go fishing and are pestered by a flock of seagulls.

Television and later films

Mickey with his Warner Bros. counterpart Bugs Bunny in Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988).

In the 1950s, Mickey became more known for his appearances on television, particularly with The Mickey Mouse Club. Many of his theatrical cartoon shorts were rereleased on television series such as Ink & Paint Club, various forms of the Walt Disney anthology television series, and on home video. Mickey returned to theatrical animation in 1983 with Mickey's Christmas Carol, an adaptation of Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol in which Mickey played Bob Cratchit. This was followed up in 1990 with The Prince and the Pauper.

Throughout the decades, Mickey Mouse competed with Warner Bros.' Bugs Bunny for animated popularity. But in 1988, in a historic moment in motion picture history, the two rivals finally shared screen time in the Robert Zemeckis Disney/Amblin film Who Framed Roger Rabbit. Disney and Warner signed an agreement stating that each character had exactly the same amount of screen time in the scene, right down to the frame.

Similar to his animated inclusion into a live-action film on Roger Rabbit, Mickey made a featured cameo appearance in the 1990 television special The Muppets at Walt Disney World where he met Kermit the Frog. The two are established in the story as having been old friends. The Muppets have otherwise spoofed and referenced Mickey over a dozen times since the 1970s. Eventually, The Muppets were purchased by the Walt Disney Company in 2004.

Mickey in Disney's House of Mouse (2001–2003).

Mickey appeared on several animated logos for Walt Disney Home Entertainment, starting with the "Neon Mickey" logo and then to the "Sorcerer Mickey" logos used for regular and Classics release titles.

His most recent theatrical cartoon short was 2013's Get A Horse! which was preceded by 1995's Runaway Brain, while from 1999 to 2004, he appeared in direct-to-video features like Mickey's Once Upon a Christmas, Mickey, Donald, Goofy: The Three Musketeers and the computer-animated Mickey's Twice Upon a Christmas.

Many television series have centered around Mickey, such as the ABC shows Mickey Mouse Works (1999—2000), Disney's House of Mouse (2001—2003) and Disney Channel's Mickey Mouse Clubhouse (2006–present). Prior to all these, Mickey was also featured as an unseen character in the Bonkers episode "You Oughta Be In Toons".

Mickey has recently been announced to star in two films. One is being based on the Magic Kingdom theme park at the Walt Disney World Resort, while the other is a film idea pitched by Walt Disney Animation Studios veteran Burny Mattinson centering around Mickey, Donald and Goofy.[31]

Since June 28, 2013, Disney Channel has been airing new 3-minute Mickey Mouse shorts. In these new shorts, Mickey has a more modern appearance, but his appearance is also very close to his original 1928 look.[32]

Voice actors

Walt Disney, the co-creator of Mickey Mouse and founder of The Walt Disney Company, was the original voice of Mickey.

A large part of Mickey's screen persona is his famously shy, falsetto voice. From his first speaking role in the 1929 short The Karnival Kid onward, Mickey was voiced by Walt Disney himself, a task in which Disney took great personal pride. However, by 1946, Disney was becoming too busy with running the studio to do regular voice work which meant he could not do Mickey's voice anymore (and as it is speculated his cigarette habit had damaged his voice over the years), and during the recording of the Mickey and the Beanstalk section of Fun and Fancy Free, Mickey's voice was handed over to veteran Disney musician and actor Jimmy MacDonald. (Both Disney's and MacDonald's voices can be heard on the final soundtrack.) MacDonald voiced Mickey in the remainder of the theatrical shorts, and for various television and publicity projects up until his retirement in the mid-1970s, although Walt voiced Mickey again for the introductions to the original 1954—1959 run of The Mickey Mouse Club TV series and the "Fourth Anniversary Show" episode of the Disneyland TV series aired on September 11, 1958.

The 1983 short film Mickey's Christmas Carol marked the theatrical debut of the late Wayne Allwine as Mickey Mouse, who was the voice of Mickey until his death in 2009.[33] Allwine once recounted something MacDonald had told him about voicing Mickey: "The main piece of advice that Jim gave me about Mickey helped me keep things in perspective. He said, 'Just remember kid, you’re only filling in for the boss.' And that’s the way he treated doing Mickey for years and years. From Walt, and now from Jimmy."[34] Allwine was, incidentally, married to Russi Taylor, the current voice of Minnie Mouse. Les Perkins did the voice of Mickey in two TV specials "Down and Out with Donald Duck" and "DTV Valentine" in the mid-1980s.

Bret Iwan, a former Hallmark greeting card artist, is the current voice of Mickey. His early recordings in 2009 included work for the Disney Cruise Line, Mickey toys, Theme Parks, and also the Disney on Ice: Celebrations! ice show.[35] His first video game voice-over of Mickey Mouse can be found on Kingdom Hearts: Birth by Sleep, a video game for PlayStation Portable. He has also voiced the character in the next games for the Kingdom Hearts series. Iwan also does the vocal effects of Mickey in the games Epic Mickey and Epic Mickey 2: The Power of Two. Despite Iwan being Mickey's primary voice actor, the character's voice is provided by Chris Diamantopoulos in the 2013 animated series,[36] as the producers were looking for a retro voice to match the vintage look of the series.[37]

Mickey in comics

Mickey and Horace Horsecollar from the Mickey Mouse daily strip; created by Floyd Gottfredson and published December 1932.

Mickey first appeared in comics after he had appeared in 15 commercially successful animated shorts and was easily recognized by the public. Walt Disney was approached by King Features Syndicate with the offer to license Mickey and his supporting characters for use in a comic strip. Disney accepted and Mickey made his first comic strip appearance on January 13, 1930. The comical plot was credited to Disney himself, art to Ub Iwerks and inking to Win Smith. The first week or so of the strip featured a loose adaptation of "Plane Crazy". Minnie soon became the first addition to the cast. The strips first released between January 13, 1930, and March 31, 1930, has been occasionally reprinted in comic book form under the collective title "Lost on a Desert Island". Animation historian Jim Korkis notes "After the eighteenth strip, Iwerks left and his inker, Win Smith, continued drawing the gag-a-day format..."[38]

In early 1930, after Iwerks' departure, Disney was at first content to continue scripting the Mickey Mouse comic strip, assigning the art to Win Smith. However, Disney's focus had always been in animation and Smith was soon assigned with the scripting as well. Smith was apparently discontent at the prospect of having to script, draw, and ink a series by himself as evidenced by his sudden resignation.

Disney then searched for a replacement among the remaining staff of the Studio. He selected Floyd Gottfredson, a recently hired employee. At the time Gottfredson was reportedly eager to work in animation and somewhat reluctant to accept his new assignment. Disney had to assure him the assignment was only temporary and that he would eventually return to animation. Gottfredson accepted and ended up holding this "temporary" assignment from May 5, 1930, to November 15, 1975.

Walt Disney's last script for the strip appeared May 17, 1930.[38] Gottfredson's first task was to finish the storyline Disney had started on April 1, 1930. The storyline was completed on September 20, 1930, and later reprinted in comic book form as Mickey Mouse in Death Valley. This early adventure expanded the cast of the strip which to this point only included Mickey and Minnie. Among the characters who had their first comic strip appearances in this story were Clarabelle Cow, Horace Horsecollar and Black Pete as well as the debuts of corrupted lawyer Sylvester Shyster and Minnie's uncle Mortimer Mouse. The Death Valley narrative was followed by Mr. Slicker and the Egg Robbers, first printed between September 22 and December 26, 1930, which introduced Marcus Mouse and his wife as Minnie's parents.

Starting with these two early comic strip stories, Mickey's versions in animation and comics are considered to have diverged from each other. While Disney and his cartoon shorts would continue to focus on comedy, the comic strip effectively combined comedy and adventure. This adventurous version of Mickey would continue to appear in comic strips and later comic books throughout the 20th and into the 21st century.

Floyd Gottfredson left his mark with stories such as Mickey Mouse Joins the Foreign Legion (1936) and The Gleam (1942). He also created the Phantom Blot, Eega Beeva, Morty and Ferdie, Captain Churchmouse, and Butch. Besides Gottfredson artists for the strip over the years included Roman Arambula, Rick Hoover, Manuel Gonzales, Carson Van Osten, Jim Engel, Bill Wright, Ted Thwailes and Daan Jippes; writers included Ted Osborne, Merrill De Maris, Bill Walsh, Dick Shaw, Roy Williams, Del Connell, and Floyd Norman.

The next artist to leave his mark on the character was Paul Murry in Dell Comics. His first Mickey tale appeared in 1950 but Mickey did not become a speciality until Murry's first serial for Walt Disney's Comics and Stories in 1953 ("The Last Resort"). In the same period Romano Scarpa in Italy for the magazine Topolino began to revitalize Mickey in stories that brought back the Phantom Blot and Eega Beeva along with new creations such as the Atomo Bleep-Bleep. While the stories at Western Publishing during the Silver Age emphasized Mickey as a detective in the style of Sherlock Holmes, in the modern era several editors and creators have consciously undertaken to depict a more vigorous Mickey in the mold of the classic Gottfredson adventures. This renaissance has been spearheaded by Byron Erickson, David Gerstein, Noel Van Horn, Michael T. Gilbert and César Ferioli.

In Europe, Mickey Mouse became the main attraction of a number of comics magazines, the most famous being Topolino in Italy from 1932 on, Le Journal de Mickey in France from 1934 on, Don Miki in Spain and the Greek Miky Maous.

Mickey was the main character for the series MM Mickey Mouse Mystery Magazine, published in Italy from 1999 to 2001.

In 1958, Mickey Mouse was introduced to the Arab world through another comic book called “Sameer”. Mickey Mouse became so popular in Egypt that he got a comic book with his name. Mickey’s comics in Egypt are licensed by Disney and were published since 1959 by “Dar Al-Hilal” and they were a big hit, but unfortunately Dar Al-Hilal stopped the publication in 2003 because of problems with Disney, luckily the comics were re-released by "Nahdat Masr" in 2004 and the first issues were sold out in less than 8 hours.[39]

Merchandising

A 1933 Ingersoll Mickey Mouse wrist watch.

Since his early years Mickey Mouse has been licensed by Disney to appear on many different kinds of merchandise. Mickey was produced as plush toys and figurines, and Mickey's image has graced almost everything from t-shirts to lunch boxes. Largely responsible for Disney merchandising in the 1930s was Kay Kamen (d. 1949) who was called a "stickler for quality." Kamen was recognized by The Walt Disney Company as having a significant part in Mickey's rise to stardom and was named a Disney Legend in 1998.[40]

Mickey was most famously featured on wrist watches and alarm clocks, typically utilizing his hands as the actual hands on the face of the clock. The first Mickey Mouse watches were manufactured in 1933 by the Ingersoll Watch Company. The seconds were indicated by a turning disk below Mickey. The first Mickey watch was sold at the Century of Progress in Chicago, 1933 for $3.75. Mickey Mouse watches have been sold by other companies and designers throughout the years, including Timex, Elgin, Helbros, Bradley, Lorus, and Gérald Genta[41] The fictional character Robert Langdon from Dan Brown's novels was said to wear a Mickey Mouse watch as a reminder "to stay young at heart."[42]

In 1989, Milton Bradley released the electronic-talking game titled Mickey Says, with three modes featuring Mickey Mouse as its host. Mickey also appeared in other toys and games, including the Worlds of Wonder-released The Talking Mickey Mouse.

Fisher-Price has recently produced a line of talking animatronic Mickey dolls including "Dance Star Mickey" (2010)[43] and "Rock Star Mickey" (2011).[44]

Mickey at the Disney parks

As the official Walt Disney mascot, Mickey has played a central role in the Disney parks since the opening of Disneyland in 1955. As with other characters, Mickey is often portrayed by a non-speaking costumed actor. In this form he has participated in ceremonies and countless parades. A popular activity with guests is getting to meet and pose for photographs with the mouse. As of the presidency of Barack Obama (who jokingly referred to him as "a world leader who has bigger ears than me")[45] Mickey has met every U.S. President since Harry Truman, with the exception of Lyndon B. Johnson.[46]

Mickey and Minnie at Hong Kong Disneyland Park.

Mickey also features in several specific attractions at the Disney parks. Mickey's Toontown (Disneyland and Tokyo Disneyland) is a themed land which is a recreation of Mickey's neighborhood. Buildings are built in a cartoon style and guests can visit Mickey or Minnie's houses, Donald Duck's boat, or Goofy's garage. This is a common place to meet the characters.[47]

Mickey's PhilharMagic (Magic Kingdom, Tokyo Disneyland, Hong Kong Disneyland) is a 4D film which features Mickey in the familiar role of symphony conductor. At Main Street Cinema several of Mickey's short films are shown on a rotating basis; the sixth film is always Steamboat Willie. Mickey plays a central role in Fantasmic! (Disneyland Resort, Disney's Hollywood Studios) a live nighttime show which famously features Mickey in his role as the Sorcerer's Apprentice. Mickey was also a central character in the now defunct Mickey Mouse Revue (Magic Kingdom, Tokyo Disneyland) which was an indoor show featuring animatronic characters. Mickey's face currently graces the Mickey's Fun Wheel at Disney California Adventure Park, where a figure of him also stands on top of Silly Symphony Swings.

In addition to Mickey's overt presence in the parks, numerous images of him are also subtly included in sometimes unexpected places. This phenomenon is known as "Hidden Mickey", involving hidden images in Disney films, theme parks and merchandise.

Mickey in video games

Like many popular characters, Mickey has starred in many video games, including Mickey Mousecapade on the Nintendo Entertainment System, Mickey Mania: The Timeless Adventures of Mickey Mouse, Mickey's Ultimate Challenge, and Disney's Magical Quest on the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, Castle of Illusion Starring Mickey Mouse on the Mega Drive/Genesis, Mickey Mouse: Magic Wands! on the Game Boy, and many others. In the 2000s, the Disney's Magical Quest series were ported to the Game Boy Advance, while Mickey made his sixth generation era debut in Disney's Magical Mirror Starring Mickey Mouse, a Nintendo GameCube title aimed at younger audiences. Mickey plays a major role in the Kingdom Hearts series, as the king of Disney Castle and aide to the protagonist, Sora. King Mickey wields the Keyblade, a weapon in the form of a key that has the power to open any lock and combat darkness. Epic Mickey, featuring a darker version of the Disney universe, was released in 2010 for the Wii. The game is part of an effort by The Walt Disney Company to re-brand the Mickey Mouse character by moving away from his current squeaky clean image and reintroducing the mischievous side of his personality.[3]

Awards and honors

Mickey's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Mickey Mouse has received ten nominations for the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film. These are Mickey's Orphans (1931), Building a Building (1933), Brave Little Tailor (1938), The Pointer (1939), Lend a Paw (1941), Squatter's Rights (1946), Mickey and the Seal (1948), Mickey's Christmas Carol (1983), Runaway Brain (1995), and Get a Horse! (2013). Among these, Lend a Paw was the only film to actually win the award. Additionally, in 1932 Walt Disney received an honorary Academy Award in recognition of Mickey's creation and popularity.

In 1994, four of Mickey's cartoons were included in the book The 50 Greatest Cartoons which listed the greatest cartoons of all time as voted by members of the animation field. The films were The Band Concert (#3), Steamboat Willie (#13), Brave Little Tailor (#26), and Clock Cleaners (#27).

On November 18, 1978, in honor of his 50th anniversary, Mickey became the first cartoon character to have a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. The star is located on 6925 Hollywood Blvd.

Melbourne (Australia) runs the annual Moomba festival street procession and appointed Mickey Mouse as their King of Moomba (1977).[48] Although immensely popular with children, there was controversy with the appointment: some Melburnians wanted a 'home-grown' choice, e.g. Blinky Bill; when it was revealed that Patricia O'Carroll (from Disneyland's Disney on Parade show) was performing the mouse, Australian newspapers reported "Mickey Mouse is really a girl!"[49]

Mickey was the Grand Marshal of the Tournament of Roses Parade on New Year's Day 2005. He was the first cartoon character to receive the honor, and only the second fictional character after Kermit the Frog in 1996.

Social impact

Use in politics

In the United States, protest votes are often made in order to indicate dissatisfaction with the slate of candidates presented on a particular ballot, or to highlight the inadequacies of a particular voting procedure. Since most states' electoral systems do not provide for blank balloting or a choice of "None of the Above", most protest votes take the form of a clearly non-serious candidate's name entered as a write-in vote. Mickey Mouse is often selected for this purpose.[50][51]

Mickey Mouse's name has also been known to appear fraudulently on voter registration lists, most recently in the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election.[52][53]

Pejorative use of Mickey's name

'Mickey Mouse' is a slang expression meaning small-time, amateurish or trivial. In the UK and Ireland, it also means poor quality or counterfeit. However, in parts of Australia it can mean excellent or very good.[54]

  • In The Godfather Part II, Fredo's justification of betraying Michael is that his orders in the family usually were "Send Fredo off to do this, send Fredo off to do that! Let Fredo take care of some Mickey Mouse night club somewhere!" as opposed to more meaningful tasks.
  • In an early episode of the 1978–82 sitcom Mork & Mindy, Mork stated that Pluto was "a Mickey Mouse planet," referring to the future dwarf planet having the same name as Mickey's pet dog Pluto. Actually, the planet was named shortly before the dog was.
  • In 1984, just after an ice hockey game in which Wayne Gretzky's Edmonton Oilers beat the New Jersey Devils 13–4, Gretzky was quoted as saying to a reporter, "Well, it's time they got their act together, they're ruining the whole league. They had better stop running a Mickey Mouse organization and put somebody on the ice. Reacting to Gretzky's comment, Devils fans wore Mickey Mouse apparel when the Oilers returned to New Jersey.[55]
  • In the 1993 Warner Bros. film Demolition Man, as Sylvester Stallone's character is fighting the malfunctioning AI of his out-of-control police car, he shouts for the system to "Brake! Brake! Brake now, you Mickey Mouse piece of ****!"[56]
  • In the 1996 Warner Brothers film Space Jam, Bugs Bunny derogatorily comments on Daffy Duck's idea for the name of their basketball team, asking: "What kind of Mickey Mouse organization would name a team 'The Ducks?'" (This also referenced the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim, a NHL team that was then owned by Disney, as well as the Disney-made "The Mighty Ducks" movie franchise. This was referencing the Disney/Warner Brothers rivalry.)
  • In the United States armed forces, actions that look good but have little or no practical use (such as the specific manner of making beds in basic training or the polishing of brass fittings onboard ship) are commonly referred to as "Mickey Mouse work".
  • In schools a "Mickey Mouse course", "Mickey Mouse major", or "Mickey Mouse degree" is a class, college major, or degree where very little effort is necessary in order to attain a good grade (especially an A) and/or one where the subject matter of such a class is not of any importance in the labor market.[57]
  • Musicians often refer to a film score that directly follows each action on screen as Mickey Mousing (also mickey-mousing and mickeymousing).[58]
  • The software company Microsoft has been derogatorily called "Mickeysoft".[59]
  • During World War II, the Motor Minesweepers used by the British Royal Naval Patrol Service were unofficially known as "Mickey Mouses".
  • In the beginning of the 1980s, then-British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher once called the European Parliament a "Mickey Mouse parliament", meaning a discussion club without influence.[60]
  • In the British sitcom Red Dwarf, in the episode "Quarantine", after the team's substandard equipment nearly cost them their lives, Lister pointed out, "We're a real Mickey Mouse operation, aren't we?" The Cat replied, "Mickey Mouse? We ain't even Betty Boop!"
  • The combined road course at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway used for the F1 U.S. Grand Prix has been described by Jacques Villeneuve and other competitors as "Mickey Mouse"[61] due to its slow uninteresting corners, and lack of challenging corners.

Parodies and criticism

"Copying is not theft!" badge with a character resembling Mickey Mouse is a visual pun on Mickey as a symbol of the IP industry and its attitude towards copyright infringement.

Mickey Mouse's global fame has made him both a symbol of The Walt Disney Company and of the United States itself. For this reason Mickey has been used frequently in anti-American satire, such as the infamous underground cartoon "Mickey Mouse in Vietnam". There have been numerous parodies of Mickey Mouse, such as the Mad Magazine parody "Mickey Rodent" by Will Elder in which the mouse walks around unshaven and jails Donald Duck out of jealousy over the duck's larger popularity.[62] The grotesque Rat Fink character was created by Ed "Big Daddy" Roth over his hatred of Mickey Mouse. In The Simpsons Movie, Bart Simpson puts a black bra on his head to mimic Mickey Mouse and says: "I'm the mascot of an evil corporation!"[63] On the Comedy Central series South Park, Mickey is depicted as the sadistic, greedy, foul-mouthed boss of The Walt Disney Company, only interested in money.
He also appears briefly with Donald Duck in the comic Squeak the Mouse of the Italian cartoonist Massimo Mattioli.

In an episode of "Full Frontal Nerdity," by Aaron Williams, Mickey is shown as desperately trying to unload Miramax.[64]

In Bored of the Rings, Mickey Mouse is satirized as Dickey Dragon.

Legal issues

It is sometimes erroneously stated that the Mickey Mouse character is only copyrighted. In fact, the character, like all major Disney characters, is also trademarked, which lasts in perpetuity as long as it continues to be used commercially by its owner. So, whether or not a particular Disney cartoon goes into the public domain, the characters themselves may not be used as trademarks without authorization.

Because of the Copyright Term Extension Act of the United States (sometimes called the 'Mickey Mouse Protection Act' because of extensive lobbying by the Disney corporation) and similar legislation within the European Union and other jurisdictions where copyright terms have been extended, works such as the early Mickey Mouse cartoons will remain under copyright until at least 2023. However, some copyright scholars argue that Disney's copyright on the earliest version of the character may be invalid due to ambiguity in the copyright notice for Steamboat Willie.[65]

The Walt Disney Company has become well known for protecting its trademark on the Mickey Mouse character, whose likeness is closely associated with the company, with particular zeal. In 1989, Disney threatened legal action against three daycare centers in Florida for having Mickey Mouse and other Disney characters painted on their walls. The characters were removed, and rival Universal Studios replaced them with Universal cartoon characters.[66]

Walt Disney Productions v. Air Pirates

In 1971, a group of underground cartoonists calling themselves the Air Pirates, after a group of villains from early Mickey Mouse films, produced a comic called Air Pirates Funnies. In the first issue, cartoonist Dan O'Neill depicted Mickey and Minnie Mouse engaging in explicit sexual behavior and consuming drugs. As O'Neill explained, "The air pirates were...some sort of bizarre concept to steal the air, pirate the air, steal the media...Since we were cartoonists, the logical thing was Disney."[67] Rather than change the appearance or name of the character, which O'Neill felt would dilute the parody, the mouse depicted in Air Pirates Funnies looks like and is named "Mickey Mouse". Disney sued for copyright infringement, and after a series of appeals, O'Neill eventually lost and was ordered to pay Disney $1.9 million. The outcome of the case remains controversial among free-speech advocates. New York Law School professor Edward Samuels said, "[The Air Pirates] set parody back twenty years."[68]

Censorship

In 1930, The German Board of Film Censors prohibited showing a Mickey Mouse film because they felt the kepi-wearing mouse negatively portrayed the Germans and would "reawaken the latest anti-German feeling existing abroad since the War".[69] A mid-1930s German newspaper article even stated:

"Mickey Mouse is the most miserable ideal ever revealed...Healthy emotions tell every independent young man and every honorable youth that the dirty and filth-covered vermin, the greatest bacteria carrier in the animal kingdom, cannot be the ideal type of animal...Away with Jewish brutalization of the people! Down with Mickey Mouse! Wear the Swastika Cross!"[70][71][72]

Art Spiegelman used this quote on the opening page of the second volume of his graphic novel Maus.

The 1935 Romanian authorities banned Mickey Mouse films from cinemas after they feared that children would be "scared to see a ten-foot mouse in the movie theatre".[73] In 1938, based on the Ministry of Popular Culture's recommendation that a reform was necessary "to raise children in the firm and imperialist spirit of the Fascist revolution," the Italian Government banned foreign children's literature[74] except Mickey; Disney characters were exempted from the decree for the "acknowledged artistic merit" of Disney's work.[75] Actually Mussolini's children were fond of Mickey Mouse, so they managed to delay his ban as long as possible.[76] In 1942, after Italy declared war on the USA, fascism forced the Italian publishers to suddenly stop printing any Disney stories. Mickey's stories were replaced by the adventures of Tuffolino, a new human character created by Federico Pedrocchi (script) and Pier Lorenzo De Vita (art). After the downfall of Italy's fascist government, the ban was removed.

Filmography

Mickey has been announced to star in two films. One is a live-action/CGI hybrid film based on the Magic Kingdom theme park at the Walt Disney World Resort,[77] while the other is a film idea pitched by Walt Disney Animation Studios veteran Burny Mattinson centering around Mickey, Donald and Goofy.[31]

Selected short films

Full length films

Television series

See also

  • Celebration Mickey, a 2-foot-tall (0.61 m), 100 lb (45 kg), 24-karat gold authentic Mickey Mouse sculpture
  • Mickey Mouse Adventures, a short-lived comic starring Mickey Mouse as the protagonist
  • Mickey Mouse universe, the phenomenon that has spawned from the Mickey Mouse series and other related characters
  • Mouse Museum, a Russian museum featuring artifacts and memorabilia relating to Mickey Mouse

References

  1. ^ Biographies of 10 Classic Disney Characters at Disney D23
  2. ^ "Voice of Mickey Mouse dies - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  3. ^ a b Barnes, Brooks (2009-11-04). "After Mickey’s Makeover, Less Mr. Nice Guy". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-11-05. 
  4. ^ Barrier, Michael (2008). The Animated Man: A Life of Walt Disney. University of California Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-520-25619-4. 
  5. ^ a b Kenworthy, John (2001). The Hand Behind the Mouse (Disney ed.). New York. pp. 53–54. 
  6. ^ Walt Disney: Conversations (Conversations With Comic Artists Series) by Kathy Merlock Jackson with Walt Disney " ISBN 1-57806-713-8 page 120
  7. ^ "Mickey Mouse's Magic- Tweentimes – Indiatimes". The Times Of India. [dead link]
  8. ^ "Mickey Mouse was going to be Mortimer Mo". Uselessknowledge.co.za. Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  9. ^ Albin, Kira (1995). "Mickey Rooney: Hollywood, Religion and His Latest Show". GrandTimes.com. Senior Magazine. Retrieved 2013-12-15. 
  10. ^ Korkis, Jim (13 April 2011). "The Mickey Rooney-Mickey Mouse Myth". Mouse Planet. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  11. ^ Korkis, Jim (30 November 2012). Who is Afraid of the Song of the South?. Theme Park Press. pp. 157–161. ASIN B00AG6G250. ISBN 0984341552. 
  12. ^ Holliss, Richard; Brian Sibley (1986). Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse: His Life and Times. New York: Harper & Row. pp. 40–45. ISBN 0-06-015619-8. 
  13. ^ An exception to this was Parade of the Award Nominees (1932) where Mickey's shorts are green.
  14. ^ "1928: Plane Crazy". Disney Shorts. Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  15. ^ "1928: Plane Crazy". Disney Shorts. Retrieved October 18, 2012. 
  16. ^ Walt Disney Treasures - Mickey Mouse in Black and White (1932) at Amazon.com; the product description of this Disney-produced DVD set describes Steamboat Willie as Mickey's debut.
  17. ^ Mickey Mouse at the Internet Movie Database
  18. ^ "Felix the Cat". Toontracker.com. Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  19. ^ Gordon, Ian (2002). "Felix the Cat". St. James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture. [dead link]
  20. ^ Mickey was first pictured with a real human in Fantasia in silhouette. Later a famous statue of Mickey and Walt Disney at Disneyland would maintain Mickey's size.
  21. ^ "Disney Shorts: 1930: Minnie's Yoo Hoo". The Encyclopedia of Disney Animated Shorts. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 
  22. ^ Polsson, Ken (June 2, 2010). Chronology of Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse (1930–1931) Ken Polsson personal page.
  23. ^ Polsson, Ken (June 2, 2010). Chronology of Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse (1932–1934) Ken Polsson personal page.
  24. ^ DeMille, William (November 1935). "Mickey vs. Popeye". The Forum.
  25. ^ Koszarski, Richard (1976). Hollywood directors, 1914–1940, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. (Quotes DeMille. 1935).
  26. ^ Calma, Gordan (May 17, 2005). Popeye's Popularity – Article from 1935 GAC Forums. (Quotes DeMille, 1935).
  27. ^ The Golden Age of Mickey Mouse disney.go.com; Disney.
  28. ^ Polsson, Ken (June 2, 2010). Chronology of the Walt Disney Company (1935–1939). Ken Polsson personal page.
  29. ^ a b Solomon, Charles. "The Golden Age of Mickey Mouse". Disney.com guest services. Archived from the original on 2008-06-11. 
  30. ^ Solomon, Charles. "Mickey in the Post-War Era". Disney.com guest services. Archived from the original on 2008-06-15. 
  31. ^ a b Connelly, Brendon (2011-03-24). "SCOOP: Mickey Mouse’s First Feature Length Film Being Developed At Disney". Bleeding Cool. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  32. ^ "Mickey Mouse's first new short in 50 years; iconic character gets new retro look for big return to cartoon shorts to be featured on Disney Channel," Don Kaplan, New York Daily News, 3/12/2013
  33. ^ "Disney Legends – Wayne Allwine". Legends.disney.go.com. 2009-05-18. Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  34. ^ "Wayne Allwine, Voice Of Mickey Mouse For 32 Years, Passes Away at Age 62 « Disney D23". D23.disney.go.com. Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  35. ^ "Disney on Ice Celebrations features Princess Tiana and Mickey's New Voice, Bret Iwan – The Latest". Laughingplace.com. Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  36. ^ Taylor, Blake (June 27, 2013). "Disney Shorts Debut with New Voice for Mickey Mouse". The Rotoscopers. Retrieved June 27, 2013. 
  37. ^ Smith, Dave (March 6, 2014). "Dave Smith Reveals Where the "33" in Disneyland’s Exclusive and Famed Club 33 Comes From". D23. Retrieved March 28, 2014. 
  38. ^ a b Korkis, Jim (August 10, 2003). "The Uncensored Mouse" blog; Jim Hill Media.
  39. ^ "Mickey Mouse In Egypt ! | Comic Book Guide". Comicbookguide.wordpress.com. 2011-03-12. Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  40. ^ Kay Kamen at disney.com
  41. ^ "THE SYDNEY TARTS: Gérald Genta". Thesydneytarts.blogspot.com. 2009-11-29. Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  42. ^ The Original Mickey Mouse Watch: 11,000 Sold in One Day & Robert Langdon's Choice at hodinkee.com
  43. ^ "Dance Star Mickey From Fisher-Price". Fisher-price.com. Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  44. ^ "Rock Star Mickey From Fisher-Price". Fisher-price.com. Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  45. ^ Auletta, Kate (January 19, 2012). "Obama Disney World Visit: President Touts Tourism, Mickey's Big Ears During Speech". The Huffington Post. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  46. ^ Suddath, Claire. "A Brief History of Mickey Mouse." Time. November 18, 2008.
  47. ^ Mickey's House and Meet Mickey at disney.com
  48. ^ Craig Bellamy, Gordon Chisholm, Hilary Eriksen (17 February 2006). "Moomba: A festival for the people (pp 17–22)" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2006-08-25. 
  49. ^ Craig Bellamy, Gordon Chisholm, Hilary Eriksen (17 February 2006). "Moomba: A festival for the people (pp 19–20)" (PDF). 
  50. ^ Friedman, Peter (2008-06-10). "Write in Mickey Mouse for President". Whatisfairuse.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  51. ^ Press, Associated (2011-01-17). "MM among top write-in candidates in Wichita elections". Nbcactionnews.com. Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  52. ^ "Vote drives defended, despite fake names – St. Petersburg Times". Google.com. Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  53. ^ "The ACORN investigations". The Economist. October 16, 2008. 
  54. ^ Australian Slang Words & Phrases at theminesite.com
  55. ^ Rosen, Dan. "1983-84: Growing Pains Lead to Promise". New Jersey Devils. Retrieved 2006-03-25. 
  56. ^ script-o-rama.com
  57. ^ "'Irresponsible' Hodge under fire". BBC News. January 14, 2003. Retrieved May 12, 2010. 
  58. ^ "Film music". BBC. Retrieved October 21, 2010. "When the music is precisely synchronised with events on screen this is known as Mickey-Mousing, eg someone slipping on a banana skin could use a descending scale followed by a cymbal crash. Mickey-Mousing is often found in comedy films." 
  59. ^ Richard Forno. ""Microsoft", No. "Mickeysoft", Yes.[dead link]" Published November 28, 2001. Retrieved November 7, 2006.
  60. ^ "What does Mickey Mouse Have To Do With The European Parliament?". EU-Oplysnigen (Denmark). Archived from the original on May 7, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-12. 
  61. ^ Hinton, Ed (2001-09-28). "F1 Drivers Knock Indy". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved 2012-01-20. 
  62. ^ ""Mickey Rodent!" (Mad #19)". Johnglenntaylor.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  63. ^ The Simpsons Movie (2007) – Memorable Quotes. The Internet Movie Database (IMDb). Retrieved on March 20, 2008.. Retrieved on March 20, 2008.
  64. ^ PS 238 – issue 44, May 2010
  65. ^ Menn, Joseph (2008-08-22). "Disney's rights to young Mickey Mouse may be wrong". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-08-22. 
  66. ^ Daycare Center Murals. Snopes.com, updated 17 September 2007. Retrieved 2010-07-27.
  67. ^ Mann, Ron. Director (1989). Comic Book Confidential. Sphinx Productions. 
  68. ^ Levin, Bob (2003). The Pirates and the Mouse: Disney's War Against the Counterculture. Fantagraphics Books. ISBN 1-56097-530-X. 
  69. ^ The Times (1930-07-14). "Mickey Mouse in Trouble (German Censorship)", The Times Archive (archive.timesonline.co.uk). Retrieved November 19, 2008.
  70. ^ Hungerford, Amy (January 15, 2003). The Holocaust of Texts. University Of Chicago Press. p. 206. ISBN 0-226-36076-8. 
  71. ^ LaCapra, Dominick (March 1998). History and Memory After Auschwitz. Cornell University Press. p. 214. ISBN 0-8014-8496-0. 
  72. ^ Rosenthal, Jack (1992-08-02). "On language; Mickey-Mousing". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-12-30. 
  73. ^ Conner, Floyd (2002). "Hollywood's Most Wanted: The Top 10 Book of Lucky Breaks, Prima Donnas, Box Office Bombs, and Other Oddities. illustrated.". Brassey's Inc. p. 243.  Missing or empty |url= (help)
  74. ^ The Times (1938-11-16). "The Banning of a Mouse". archive.timesonline.co.uk (London: The Times Archive). p. 15. Retrieved 2010-07-27. 
  75. ^ Evening Post, Volume CXXVI, Issue 151, 23 December 1938 (1938-11-16). "Mickey Mouse reprieved.". paperspast. p. 16. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 
  76. ^ Francesco De Giacomo, Quando il duce salvò Topolino, IF terza serie, n. 4, 1995.
  77. ^ Graser, Marc. "Jon Favreau enters Disney's 'Magic Kingdom'", Variety, November 10, 2010. WebCitation archive.

External links

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mickey_Mouse



AUDIO



VÍDEO
YouTube Preview Image
Hola a todos, soy yo, Mickey Mouse.
Oye, queréis entrar en mi casa?

Pues muy bien, vamos allá.

Jaja, casi se me olvida,
para que la casa aparezca
tenemos que decir las palabras mágicas
Miska, Muska, Mickey Mouse.

Repetidlo conmigo:
Miska, Muska, Mickey Mouse

M-I-C-K-E-Y M-O-U-S-E
Ese soy yo
M-I-C-K-E-Y M-O-U-S-E
Es la casa de Mickey Mouse
entra y te divertirás

Es la casa de Mickey Mouse
Pasemos lista:
Donald
-Presente
Daisy
-Presente
Goofy
-Presente
Pluto
-Guau, guau
Minnie
-Jaja, Presente
Mickey
-Presente

Es la casa de Mickey Mouse
entra y te divertirás
M-I-C-K-E-Y M-O-U-S-E.

 

Más información sobre Mickey Mouse

Mickey Mouse
Personaje de The Walt Disney Company
Mickey Mouse - The Mad Doctor.png
Interpretado por Walt Disney (Regular: 1928–1946; ocasional: 1947-1966)
Jimmy MacDonald (1947–1977)
Wayne Allwine (1977-2009)
Les Perkins (DTV Valentine 1986 , Down and out with Donald Duck 1987)
Bret Iwan (2009-presente)
Chris Diamantopoulos (2013-presente)
Información
Nombre original Mickey Mouse
Alias Mickey, Ratón Miguelito, o Ratón Mickey
Raza Ratón
Aliados Pluto
Enemigos El Fantasma de Tinta/Mancha Negra, Mortimer Mouse, Sylvester Shyster, Pete Patapalo
Conexiones Pato Donald, Goofy, Chip y Dale, Pata Daisy.
Cónyuge Minnie Mouse
Pareja(s) Jessie Mouse (ex-pareja)
Familiares Oswald el conejo afortunado (hermano)
Perfil en IMDb

Mickey Mouse es un personaje ficticio de la serie del mismo nombre, emblema de la compañía Disney. Creado el 18 de noviembre de 1928, este antropomórfico ratón tiene un origen disputado. La leyenda oficial explica que fue creado por Walt Disney durante un viaje en tren, y que su nombre inicial fue Mortimer, pero que cambió a Mickey a petición de su esposa, Lillian. Según Bob Thomas, la leyenda del nombre es ficticia, y cita el caso de un personaje llamado Mortimer Mouse, que nació en 1936, tío de Minnie Mouse.[1] La versión más verosímil es que el personaje fue creado por el dibujante Ub Iwerks, a petición de Disney, para compensar la pérdida de los derechos de Oswald, el conejo afortunado, a manos de la Universal. Lo cierto es que Mickey no es más que una variación del personaje de Oswald.[2] A Walt Disney hay que atribuirle tanto la voz del personaje (le dio voz durante 17 años) como la personalidad y el carácter del ratón:

Su cabeza era un círculo con otro círculo a modo de hocico. Su cuerpo era como una pera y tenía una cola larga; sus patas eran tubos y se las metimos en zapatos grandes para darle el aspecto de un chiquillo con el calzado de su padre.

The Walt Disney Company celebra el nacimiento de Mickey el 18 de noviembre de 1928, a raíz del estreno de Steamboat Willie, primer cortometraje sonoro de dibujos animados, y tercera aparición del ratón.[3] Walt Disney prestó su voz al personaje desde 1928 hasta 1947, cuando fue sustituido por el técnico de sonido Jimmy MacDonald. Desde 1977 la voz es de Wayne Allwine hasta 2009 desde entonces es interpretado por Bret Iwan. A lo largo de los años Mickey ha aparecido en dibujos animados, tiras cómicas, videojuegos, y se ha convertido en el icono de la compañía Walt Disney.

Primeros éxitos

Primer encuentro con Pete Pata Palo

Walt Disney en 1954.
Las orejas de Mickey.

The Gallopin' Gaucho fue el segundo cortometraje protagonizado por Mickey que produjo Walt Disney. The Walt Disney Company no logró, sin embargo, encontrar un distribuidor para la película, que se estrenó después del éxito del tercer corto del personaje, Steamboat Willie, el 30 de diciembre de 1928. Por ese motivo, aunque fue el segundo cortometraje de Mickey Mouse en cuanto a su producción, fue el tercero en ser estrenado.

Tanto Mickey como su novia, Minnie, habían aparecido ya en el primer corto de la serie, Plane Crazy, que se estrenó el 15 de mayo de 1928 y no obtuvo el éxito esperado. Disney e Iwerks volvieron a intentar captar el interés de la audiencia con una nueva película sobre los mismos personajes, The Gallopin' Gaucho. La animación del filme corrió exclusivamente a cargo de Iwerks. The Gallopin' Gaucho pretendía ser una parodia de una película de Douglas Fairbanks, titulada The Gaucho, estrenada poco antes, el 21 de noviembre de 1927. La acción se desarrolla en la Pampa argentina, y Mickey es el propio gaucho.

El protagonista monta un ñandú en lugar de un caballo (aunque a veces se dice que es un avestruz). Llega al bar-restaurante Cantina Argentina, aparentemente para relajarse tomando una copa y fumando. En el restaurante se encuentra a la camarera y bailarina Minnie Mouse, y un parroquiano, que no es otro que Pete Pata Palo (en inglés Peg Leg Pete, más tarde Black Pete o simplemente Pete), presentado como un forajido. El papel de villano de Pete había quedado ya establecido en las series de las Comedias de Alicia y Oswald el conejo afortunado. Este corto, sin embargo, representa su primer encuentro con Mickey y Minnie. Los dos últimos parecen no conocerse, aunque ambos habían aparecido juntos ya en Plane Crazy.

Minnie baila un tango y los dos personajes masculinos se pelean por ella. Pete intenta apresurar el final de la pelea raptando a Minnie y llevándosela en su caballo, pero Mickey le sigue a lomos de su ñandú y pronto se pone a su altura. Mickey y Pete entablan entonces un duelo a espada, de la que el primero sale victorioso, rescatando a la damisela en apuros. El corto termina con la imagen de Mickey y Minnie, a lomos del ñandú, perdiéndose en el horizonte.

En entrevistas posteriores, Iwerks comentaría que en The Gallopin' Gaucho pretendía presentar a Mickey como un espadachín aventurero, semejante a los personajes que solía representar en el cine Douglas Fairbanks. Las personalidades, tanto de Mickey como de Minnie, son, sin embargo, muy diferentes de como llegarían a ser en años posteriores. Mickey es todavía un personaje muy parecido a Oswald, aunque Disney estaba trabajando ya en darle una personalidad propia.

Como resultado de estos trabajos se creó el siguiente cortometraje de Mickey, el segundo en ser estrenado y el primero que realmente llamó la atención del público: Steamboat Willie.

La llegada del sonoro

Steamboat Willie fue estrenada por primera vez el 18 de noviembre de 1928, en el Colony Theather, y fue dirigida por Walt Disney y Ub Iwerks. Iwerks ejerció de nuevo como jefe de animación, asistido por Johnny Cannon, Les Clark, Wilfred Jackson y Dick Lundy. Este cortometraje era una parodia de Steamboat Bill Jr (El héroe del río), de Buster Keaton, estrenada el 12 de mayo del mismo año. A pesar de ser la tercera aparición de Mickey, este cortometraje está considerado como el verdadero debut del personaje.

Este corto de animación no fue el primero que combinó sonido, música y diálogos sincronizados. Fleischer Studios había estrenado una serie de animaciones sonoras, usando el sistema De Forest, a mediados de los años 1920. A pesar de eso, la idea de hacer un corto sonoro le vino a Walt Disney tras ver un corto de las Aesop's Film Fables, titulado Dinner Time. Steamboat Willie fue, sin embargo, el primer corto sonoro que alcanzó una fama importante. A día de hoy aún se debate sobre quién fue el autor de la música original del corto. Ha sido atribuida a, entre otros, Wilfred Jackson, Carl Stalling o Bert Lewis, pero no hay ninguna conclusión definitiva. El propio Walt puso la voz, tanto de Mickey como de Minnie, aunque no había diálogos, solo ruidos tipo risas, lloros y gritos.

La historia nos muestra a Mickey pilotando el Steamboat mientras silba una pegadiza melodía. Al momento aparece el capitán del barco, el Capitán Pete, y lo echa, para conducir él. Se detiene el barco para recoger la carga, y cuando están a punto de zarpar otra vez, aparece Minnie, que ha perdido el barco. Mickey la ayuda a subir con una grúa. Una vez en el barco, una cabra del cargamento de animales del barco se come la partitura de Minnie, que tenía escrita la famosa canción Turkey in the Straw. Entonces Mickey usará el rabo del animal como aguja en un fonógrafo y sonará la melodía. Acto seguido empezará a usar a diferentes animales como instrumentos musicales. El Capitán Pete, molesto por el ruido de la música, obliga a Mickey a trabajar. El corto finaliza con la imagen de Mickey pelando patatas.

El público que acudió al estreno de este cortometraje se quedó muy impresionado por el uso de la música con fines cómicos. Las películas sonoras representaban todavía una gran innovación, ya que la primera película sonora de la historia, El cantante de jazz, con Al Jolson, se había estrenado el 6 de octubre de 1927, y, en menos de un año, muchas salas de Estados Unidos ya habían instalado equipos de sonido para este tipo de películas. Walt Disney estaba dispuesto a aprovechar las ventajas que este nuevo sistema ofrecía, ya que muchos otros estudios aún seguían produciendo cortos de animación mudos, que difícilmente podían competir con Disney. Mickey Mouse pasó a ser rápidamente uno de los personajes de animación más populares de su época, cosa que permitió a Walt estrenar de nuevo los dos primeros cortos de su ratón: Plane Crazy y The Gallopin' Gaucho (no había sido estrenado). Originalmente mudos, se les incorporó sonido y aumentaron la popularidad del dibujo. The Barn Dance (14 de marzo de 1929) sería su cuarta aparición como personaje, ya muy famoso. Pero Mickey no hablaría hasta The Karnival Kid (23 de mayo de 1929), cuando pronunciaría sus primeras palabras: Hot dogs, Hot dogs!

Roles

Mickey pretendiente

The Barn Dance (El baile del granero), estrenado el 14 de marzo de 1929, sería el primero de los doce cortos estrenados ese año. Dirigido por Walt Disney, con Ub Iwerks como jefe de animación, la novedad de esta producción es ver a Mickey rechazado por Minnie en favor de Pete. Pete, anteriormente presentado como un bandido, se comporta aquí como un educado caballero, mientras Mickey no hace el papel del héroe sino de un joven y bastante ineficaz pretendiente. Sus lamentaciones y tristeza por su fracaso muestran a un Mickey excepcionalmente sensible y vulnerable. Se comentó, sin embargo, que Disney sólo buscaba la empatía del público hacia el personaje.

Aparición de los guantes

"¿Te has preguntado alguna vez por qué llevamos estos guantes blancos?"- Varios personajes.

The Opry House, estrenado el 28 de marzo de 1929, fue el segundo cortometraje de aquel año, y el primero que introdujo los guantes blancos en los personajes. Mickey Mouse llevaría estos guantes en la mayoría de sus siguientes apariciones. Una de las razones más verosímiles del añadido de los guantes sería poder distinguir a los personajes cuando sus cuerpos estaban pegados, ya que todos ellos eran de color negro (Mickey no apareció en color hasta The Band Concert, El concierto de la banda, en 1935).

Mickey como animal

When the Cat's Away, estrenado el 18 de abril de 1929, era, en esencia, una versión de Alice Rattled by Rats (15 de enero de 1926), una de las Comedias de Alicia. Significó la segunda aparición del villano Kat Nipp (tras The Opry House). Kat Nipp es un gato antropomorfo que siempre está borracho. Un día sale de casa para ir a cazar. En ese momento una banda de ratones invaden la casa en busca de comida. Entre ellos están Mickey y Minnie. Lo inusual de este corto es ver a los dos ratones con el tamaño y el comportamiento de dos ratones reales, mientras que las producciones anteriores y posteriores a este corto presentaban a Mickey y Minnie como dos ratones antropomorfos del tamaño de pequeños seres humanos.

Mickey como soldado

El cuarto cortometraje de Mickey también se considera inusual. Fue The Barnyard Battle, estrenado el 25 de abril de 1929, y se ve a Mickey como soldado, dispuesto en primera línea para la guerra.

Transición

Los años de la Gran Depresión

El duodécimo y último corto de Mickey de 1929 fue Jungle Rhythm. Estrenado el 15 de noviembre, cuenta la historia de Mickey en pleno safari en algún lugar de África. Montado en elefante y armado con una escopeta, sus problemas empiezan cuando se cruzan en su camino un león y un oso. Mickey tiene la idea de empezar a tocar música para tranquilizarlos, y el resto del corto consiste en varios animales de la selva bailando la música de Mickey. Las melodías van desde Yankee Doodle y Turkey in the Straw hasta Auld Lang Syne, The Blue Danube y Aloha `Oe.

Primeras tiras cómicas

Hasta el momento, Mickey había aparecido en quince exitosos cortometrajes y había pasado a ser uno de los personajes animados más conocidos por el público. La King Features Syndicate pidió a Disney una licencia para usar a Mickey y sus compañeros de reparto en una serie de tiras cómicas. Walt aceptó y la primera tira saldría a la luz el 13 de enero de 1930, con guion del propio Walt Disney, dibujos de Ub Iwerks y entintado de Win Smith. La primera semana las tiras fueron una adaptación parcial de Plane Crazy, y Minnie fue el primer personaje en incorporarse al reparto junto a Mickey.

Las tiras publicadas entre el 13 de enero y el 31 de mayo de 1930 han sido regularmente recopiladas en un álbum completo bajo el título genérico de Lost on a Desert Island (Perdidos en una isla desierta).

De música clásica

Al mismo tiempo que se publicaban las tiras, Disney produjo dos nuevos cortometrajes de Mickey. El primero de ellos fue The Barnyard Concert (El concierto del corral), estrenado el 3 de marzo de 1930. Vemos a Mickey como director de orquesta. Los únicos personajes reconocibles de cortos anteriores son Clarabella tocando la flauta, y Horacio con el tambor. Ambos interpretan una cómica adaptación de Poet and Peasant, de Franz von Suppé, aunque muchos de los gags usados en este corto ya se habían visto en producciones anteriores.

El segundo fue estrenado el 14 de marzo de 1930, bajo el título de Fiddlin' Around, aunque es más conocido como Just Mickey. Ambos títulos describen con precisión el desarrollo del corto, que no es más que Mickey haciendo un solo de violín. Es notable por la emotiva interpretación que hace el ratón del final de la ópera Guillermo Tell, el Träumerei (Reverie), de Robert Schumann, y la Rapsodia Húngara Nº2, de Franz Liszt.

El adiós de Iwerks

El siguiente cortometraje de Mickey fue Cactus Kid, estrenado el 11 de abril de 1930. A pesar de que el título lleve a pensar que es una parodia de las películas del Oeste, en realidad se trataba de una nueva versión de The Gallopin' Gaucho, aunque esta vez la acción se trasladaba desde Argentina a México. Mickey es, de nuevo, un viajero solitario que entra en una taberna y flirtea con una bailarina, de nuevo Minnie. El rival vuelve a ser Pete, llamado aquí Peg-Leg Pedro, en la que es su primera aparición con una pata de palo, algo que sería habitual en años posteriores. El ñandú original es aquí sustituido por Horacio, en su última aparición como animal no antropomórfico. La relevancia de este cortometraje viene dada porque sería el último que animaría Ub Iwerks.

Poco antes del estreno de Cactus Kid, Ub Iwerks había abandonado a Disney para abrir su propio estudio. El resultado fue la serie conocida como Flip the Frog (la rana Flip), con el primer cortometraje de animación sonoro en color, titulado Fiddlesticks. Creó también otras dos series: Willie Whopper y Comicolor. Su éxito amenazaba el predominio que Disney había alcanzado en la industria del cine de dibujos animados.[4]

Esta separación se considera un punto de inflexión, tanto en las carreras de Walt Disney como de Mickey Mouse. El primero perdió al que había sido su amigo y confidente desde 1919. El segundo perdió al responsable de su diseño original y el director o animador de la mayoría de los cortos estrenados hasta aquel momento. Y, para muchos, ese fue el auténtico creador de Mickey Mouse. Se considera a Walt como la inspiración para el personaje, pero Iwerks creó el diseño original y los primeros dibujos de Mickey fueron obra, parcial o totalmente, de Iwerks. Es por ello que algunos historiadores consideran que Iwerks debería ser reconocido actualmente como el creador de Mickey. Resaltan que los primeros dibujos de Mickey estaban acreditados como "A Walt Disney Comic, drawn by Ub Iwerks" (dibujados por Ub Iwerks). Pero las últimas reediciones de esos primeros dibujos tienden a acreditar a Walt Disney únicamente.

En cualquier caso, Disney y su equipo continuaron con la producción de las series de Mickey. El ratón siguió apareciendo regularmente en cortos animados hasta 1942, y otra vez de 1946 a 1952.

Las tiras de prensa de aventuras

Pero, volviendo a 1930, a Walt se le presentaba otro problema: la continuación de las tiras cómicas tras la marcha de Iwerks. Al principio, Walt continuó escribiendo los guiones y Win Smith los dibujaba. Sin embargo, los intereses de Walt se fueron decantando cada vez más hacia la animación, y Smith tuvo que encargarse también de guionizar las tiras. A Smith, aparentemente, no le apetecía encargarse de todo el trabajo; guion, dibujo y entintado. Esto es evidente tras su repentina dimisión. Otra razón podría ser que Walt Disney era un hombre de muy difícil carácter, y Smith no soportaba la total falta de libertad creativa que Walt le imponía.

Walt Disney tuvo que buscar un sustituto para Smith entre el resto de su equipo, y, por motivos que se desconocen, escogió a Floyd Gottfredson, un recién llegado al estudio. Gottfredson era un joven que estaba impaciente por entrar en el mundo de la animación, y no le hizo mucha gracia su nuevo trabajo como creador de las tiras cómicas. Walt le prometió que solo sería temporal y que pronto volvería a la división de animación. Gottfredson aceptó, y su trabajo "temporal" duró desde el 5 de mayo de 1930 hasta el 15 de noviembre de 1975.

Floyd Gottfredson inició su trabajo en las tiras de prensa continuando la historia que sus predecesores habían desarrollado desde el 1 de abril de 1930. Esta historia se completó el 20 de septiembre de 1930 y se recopiló más tarde en forma de álbum, con el título de Mickey Mouse in Death Valley (Mickey Mouse en el Valle de la Muerte). Esta primera aventura amplió el reparto de personajes que hasta entonces solo incluía a Mickey y Minnie. Fueron las primeras apariciones en cómic de Clarabella, Horacio y Pete Patapalo. También fue la presentación del abogado corrupto, Sylvester Shyster, y del tío de Minnie, Mortimer Mouse. La siguiente historia fue Mr. Slicker and the Egg Robbers, publicada entre el 22 de setiembre y el 26 de diciembre de 1930, donde se presentaron los padres de Minnie: Marcus Mouse y su esposa.

Estas dos historias iniciaron lo que pasaría a ser una división entre el cómic y la animación. Mientras los cortos animados continuaron en su línea tradicional de comedia, las tiras cómicas combinaron comedia y aventuras hasta bien entrados los años 50.

Estas historietas empezaron a publicarse en Europa a través de las revistas "Topolino" (Italia, 1932), "Le Journal de Mickey" (Francia, 1934) y "Mickey" (España, 1935).[5]

Dibujos animados en color

En 1935 Walt Disney estrenó el cortometraje The Band Concert (El concierto de la banda), que fue el primer corto de Mickey Mouse en Technicolor. La historia nos presenta a Mickey como director de una orquesta al aire libre, tocando la obertura de Guillermo Tell y después La tormenta. La orquesta está formada por el Pato Donald (en su tercera aparición en un corto de Mickey), que interrumpe el concierto tocando Turkey in the Straw con su flauta, Goofy (clarinete) y un personaje similar (¿Gideon Goat?) (trombón), Clarabella (flauta), Horacio (percusión), Peter Pig (trompeta) y Paddy Pig (tuba). En 1994 obtuvo el tercer puesto en la lista 50 Greatest Cartoons (los 50 mejores dibujos animados de la historia).

El éxito de Mickey Mouse era tan grande que, ese mismo año, la Sociedad de Naciones premió a Disney con una medalla de oro, declarando a Mickey "símbolo internacional de buena voluntad". Numerosas personalidades públicas declararon su admiración por Mickey Mouse, incluyendo a la actriz Mary Pickford, al presidente de Estados Unidos Franklin Delano Roosevelt, a Benito Mussolini[6] e incluso al rey de Inglaterra, Jorge V.[7]

El aprendiz de brujo

Maqueta gigante del sombrero de El aprendiz de brujo, en Disney World.

A finales de los años 1930 Mickey Mouse había perdido popularidad, ya que los gustos del público se iban decantando cada vez más hacia los largometrajes, hecho que inquietó a Walt Disney.[8] Uno de los personajes creados para uno de los cortos de Mickey, el Pato Donald (Donald Duck), había adquirido serie propia, y demostró ser más popular que su compañero el ratón, y, sobre todo, más rentable. Walt, sin embargo, no estaba dispuesto a deshacerse todavía de su personaje clave, con lo que ideó un cortometraje especial que se concebiría como la reaparición de Mickey Mouse: El aprendiz de brujo,[9] que sería totalmente mudo excepto por la música de Paul Dukas, en quien estaba basado el cortometraje. Los guionistas sugirieron que el protagonista del corto podría ser Mudito (o Tontín), el enano mudo de la película de Walt Disney Blancanieves y los siete enanitos (1938), pero Walt insistió en usar a Mickey.

La producción del cortometraje empezó en 1938, cuando Walt coincidió en un restaurante de Hollywood con el famoso director de orquesta Leopold Stokowski,[8] que se ofreció a grabar la música gratis, con lo que reunió un equipo de unos cien músicos de Los Ángeles para tocar y grabar la banda sonora de los nueve minutos de duración del cortometraje.

El departamento de animación del estudio trabajó en el que era el proyecto más ambicioso del estudio. El animador Fred Moore rediseñó a Mickey Mouse, otorgándole más peso y volumen, de acuerdo con la tecnología de la época. También se le añadieron pupilas para dotar a su cara de mayor expresividad. Todo en la película se hizo prestando especial atención a los detalles y a la creatividad: los colores, el ritmo, la animación del personaje y de los efectos. El brujo sin nombre de El aprendiz de brujo fue llamado Yen Sid: Disney deletreado a la inversa.

Todos estos esfuerzos iban a salir muy caros, unos 125.000 dólares, un precio que Walt y, sobre todo, su hermano y socio, Roy, sabían que no iba compensarse en taquilla.[8] La mayoría de los cortometrajes de Disney habían costado unos 40.000 dólares, que eran unos 10.000 dólares más que el presupuesto medio de cualquier corto hecho fuera de los estudios Disney. El cortometraje más rentable del estudio, Los tres cerditos, había recaudado 60.000 dólares en taquilla. Siguiendo el consejo de Stokowski, Walt decidió ampliar el cortometraje al estilo de su serie de cortos Silly Symphonies, pero concebido como un largometraje, formado por varias escenas donde la animación se combinaba con la música clásica, y donde El aprendiz de brujo sería una de ellas. Para proveer a la película de una continuidad, Walt reclutó al compositor y crítico musical Deems Taylor como maestro de ceremonias que introducía y explicaba cada uno de los segmentos. Stokowski sugirió el título de Fantasía (que literalmente significaba "Una mezcla de temas familiares con variaciones e interludios"[10] ), que pasó a ser finalmente el título definitivo (el título inicial era The Concert Feature).

Con El aprendiz de brujo casi completo, el resto de la producción de Fantasía se inició a principios de 1939, prestando la misma atención por el detalle y la cuidada animación en todos los demás segmentos de la película.

A pesar de que la película se puede considerar un fracaso de Walt Disney, consagró a Mickey Mouse como uno de los iconos definitivos del estudio, y la imagen de Mickey con el traje de brujo ha sido durante décadas el emblema de Walt Disney.

Últimos años

Historia reciente

  • En 1955, King Features Syndicate, la empresa distribuidora de las tiras, obligó a los autores a abandonar las aventuras largas. No ocurrió así en Italia, donde Romano Scarpa continuó realizándolas, a partir de Topolino e il mistero di Tapioco VI (1956).
  • El 18 de noviembre de 1978, a raíz del 50 aniversario, Mickey Mouse se convirtió en el primer personaje de dibujos animados en obtener una estrella en el Paseo de la Fama de Hollywood. La estrella se encuentra en el 6925 de Hollywood Boulevard.
  • Durante décadas, Mickey ha competido con la estrella de la Warner Bros, Bugs Bunny, por ser el dibujo animado más popular. Pero en 1988, en uno de los momentos históricos de la animación, ambos compartieron una escena en la película de Robert Zemeckis ¿Quién engañó a Roger Rabbit?. Warner y Disney firmaron un acuerdo en el que se especificaba que cada personaje saldría exactamente el mismo tiempo en pantalla, hasta el último microsegundo.
  • Su último cortometraje hasta la fecha ha sido Runaway Brain, estrenado en 1995. En 2004 apareció en un largometraje estrenado directamente en vídeo, llamado Mickey, Donald, Goofy: The Three Musketeers (Los tres mosqueteros), y en el largo de animación digital, Mickey's Twice Upon a Christmas. Mickey nunca ha aparecido en un largometraje que no esté basado en una obra clásica de la literatura universal.
  • Aunque las tiras de prensa de Mickey dejaron de aparecer en 1999, el personaje aún se desarrolla en la revista italiana Topolino gracias a autores como Casty y en nuevas series como MM Mickey Mouse Mystery Magazine, publicada entre 1999 y 2001.
  • Muchos programas de televisión se centran en la figura de Mickey, como los recientes Mickey Mouse Works (1999—2000), Disney's House of Mouse (2001—2003) y Mickey Mouse Clubhouse (2006-Presente).
  • Mickey fue nombrado el Grand Marshal of the Tournament of Roses Parade, el día de Año Nuevo de 2005.

La voz de Mickey

Gran parte de la personalidad de Mickey se debe a su tímida voz en tono falsete. Desde sus primeras palabras en The Karnival Kid, el propio Walt Disney prestó su voz a Mickey, tarea de la que estaba muy orgulloso (se dice que Carl Stalling y Clarence Nash actuaron como actores de voz sin acreditar en algunos de los cortos). Sin embargo, hacia 1947, Walt Disney estaba demasiado ocupado para encargarse personalmente de prestar su voz a Mickey (se especuló que su adicción al tabaco había perjudicado su voz durante años), y durante la grabación de Mickey and the Beanstalk (un fragmento de Fun and Fancy Free), la voz de Mickey fue transferida al músico de Disney y actor Jim MacDonald (en la música original final se pueden oír las dos voces). MacDonald puso la voz de Mickey durante los siguientes cortometrajes, y para proyectos publicitarios y televisivos, hasta su retirada a mediados de los años 1970. Mientras tanto, Walt volvió a usar su voz con Mickey para las introducciones del Mickey Mouse Club original, entre 1954 y 1959, y para el episodio Fourth Anniversary Show de la serie para televisión Disneyland, emitido el 11 de septiembre de 1958. En 1977, con el The All New Mickey Mouse Club, se produjo el estreno de Wayne Allwine como voz de Mickey, hasta su fallecimiento el 20 de mayo de 2009. Curiosamente, la esposa de Allwine es Russi Taylor, voz actual de Minnie Mouse. Les Perkins hizo la voz de Mickey en los especiales de televisión DTV Valentine y Down and out with Donald Duck en 1986 y 1987 respectivamente. Bret Iwan fue elegido para interpretar la cuarta y actual voz de Mickey Mouse. Su primera interpretación del personaje la realizó para los juguetes de Mickey y después para los promocionales de Disney Cruise Line. Además interpretó su voz en el espectáculo Disney on Ice: Celebrations!. Su primera interpretación oficial fue en el videojuego Kingdom Hearts: Birth by Sleep que fue lanzado en septiembre de 2010.

En español neutro

La voz en español neutro del personaje Mickey Mouse, es la más caótica de todos los personajes de la empresa Disney. Mientras que Minnie Mouse por ejemplo, casi siempre fue interpretada por Diana Santos (que sigue interpretando la voz de Minnie hasta la fecha). Los actores que lo doblaron fueron:

En España, al principio se mantuvo el doblaje al español neutro hasta el año 1992. En aquel año, todas las producciones de Walt Disney se empezaron a doblar en España y desde entonces el actor José Padilla se encarga de doblar al personaje Mickey Mouse, excepto en la película ¿Quién engañó a Roger Rabbit?, que fue doblado por Rafael Alonso Naranjo Jr.

Derechos de autor

La estrella de Mickey en el Paseo de la Fama de Hollywood.

Mucha gente cree erróneamente que el personaje de Mickey Mouse está protegido solo por derechos de autor, pero en realidad Mickey, como la mayoría de los personajes de Disney, está protegido como marca registrada ( o ®), y, como todas las marcas registradas, sus derechos son perpetuos siempre que el dueño las use comercialmente. En el caso de que un dibujo de Disney estuviera en el dominio público, los propios personajes seguirían como marca registrada y su uso se consideraría "no autorizado". Sin embargo, dentro de Estados Unidos, la Copyright Term Extension Act (también llamada despectivamente Mickey Mouse Protection Act, a raíz de la persistente presión de The Walt Disney Company) asegura que trabajos como los primeros dibujos de Mickey Mouse dejarán de estar protegidos por derechos de autor en algún momento.[11]

The Walt Disney Company ha puesto especial empeño en proteger a Mickey Mouse como marca registrada, al estar tan asociada la imagen del ratón con la propia empresa. En 1989, Disney demandó a tres guarderías de Hallandale, Florida, por tener en sus paredes dibujos de Mickey y de otros personajes de Disney. Los dibujos tuvieron que ser borrados, y una compañía rival, Universal Studios, permitió que se pintaran algunos de sus propios personajes.[12]

Farfur

En 2007, un clon de Mickey Mouse llamado Farfur fue usado en el programa de televisión Los Pioneros del Mañana, que se emite en el canal oficial del grupo Hamás (partido gobernante de la Franja de Gaza), Al-Aqsa TV. En el programa se adoctrina a los niños con frases como: Estamos poniendo contigo la primera piedra para el dominio del mundo bajo el poder islámico. [...] Debes ser cuidadoso con tus oraciones e ir a la mezquita para tus cinco rezos diarios [...] hasta que dominemos el mundo.[13][14] El ministro de Información de palestina retiró el programa para revisar su contenido el 11 de mayo,[15][16] pero continuó emitiéndose.[17] Finalmente, el 29 de junio, el personaje de Farfur fue "asesinado" por un actor disfrazado de soldado israelí, al que Farfur llama "terrorista", mientras Sara, la niña que presenta el programa, declama: Farfur ha sido martirizado mientras defendía su tierra [...] ha sido asesinado por los asesinos de niños.[18]

La hija de Walt Disney, Diana Disney Miller, dijo que Hamás era el "mal en estado puro" por usar a Mickey Mouse para adoctrinar en el radicalismo islámico a los niños.[19]

Mickey Mouse en otras lenguas

Idioma Nombre
Alemán Micky Maus
Árabe ميكي ماوس (meekee maws)[20]
Búlgaro Мики Маус (Miki Maus)[21]
Checo Mickey Mouse,[22] después Myšák Mickey[23]
Chino 米老鼠 (pinyin mǐ lǎoshǔ) o 米奇 (mǐqí)
Catalán Ratolí Mickey, Mickey Mouse
Coreano 미키 마우스 (Miki Mauseu)
Croata Miki Maus
Danés Mickey Mouse, Mikkel Mus
Eslovaco Myšiak Miky
Esloveno Miki Miška
Esperanto Miĉjo Muso
Estonio Miki Hiir[24]
Finés Mikki Hiiri
Francés Mickey Mouse
Gallego Rato Mickey, Mickey Mouse
Griego Mikυ Μαους
Hebreo מיקי מאוס (Mīqī Maus)
Holandés Mickey Mouse
Húngaro Miki egér
Indonesio Miki Tikus
Islandés Mikki Mús
Italiano Topolino
Japonés Mikkii Mausu (ミッキーマウス), Miki Kuchi
Letón Mikimauss
Lituano Peliukas Mikis
Macedonio Мики Маус (Mikki Maus)
Noruego Mikke Mus
Polaco Myszka Miki
Portugués (Portugal) Rato Mickey
Portugués (Brasil) Mickey Mouse (Camundongo Mickey)
Ruso Микки Маус (Mikki Maus)
Serbio Мики Маус (Miki Maus)
Sueco Musse Pigg
Tailandés มิคกี้ เมาส์
Turco Miki Fare

Filmografía (Incompleta)

  • Plane Crazy (1928) - Primera aparición.
  • The Gallopin' Gaucho (1928) - Segunda aparición (en orden de producción).
  • Steamboat Willie (1928) - Segunda aparición (en orden de estreno).
  • Mickey's Choo Choo (1929)
  • Haunted House (1929).
  • The Chain Gang (1930) - Primera aparición de Pluto.
  • Pioneer days (1930).
  • Mickey's Orphans (1931)- Primera aparición de Pluto como mascota de Mickey.
  • Mickey's Revue (1932) - Primera aparición de Goofy.
  • The Grocery Boy (1932).
  • The Mad Doctor (1933).
  • Mickey's Gala Premiere (1933).
  • Puppy love (1933).
  • Ye Olden Days (1933).
  • The Orphan's Benefit (1934) - Primera aparición del Pato Donald en un corto de Mickey.
  • Two Gun (1934).
  • Mickey plays papa (1934)
  • Mickey's Steamroller (1934)
  • The Dognapper(1934)
  • Gulliver Mickey (1934)
  • Camping Out (1934)
  • Mickey's Service Station (1935) - Primer corto con el trío Mickey, Donald y Goofy.
  • Mickey's Kangaroo (1935)
  • Mickey's Man Friday (1935)
  • The Band Concert (1935) - Primera aparición de Mickey en color.
  • Mickey's Garden (1935).
  • On Ice (1935).
  • Pluto's Judgement Day (1935).
  • Thru the Mirror (1936).
  • Lonesome Ghosts (1937).
  • Hawaiian Holiday (1937).
  • Mickey's Trailer (1938).
  • Brave Little Tailor (1938).
  • The Pointer (1939) - Primera aparición de Mickey en su diseño actual.
  • The Sorcerer's Apprentice (1940, fragmento de Fantasía).
  • The Little Whirlwind (1941).
  • The Nifty Nineties (1941).
  • Mickey's Birthday Party (1942).
  • Symphony Hour (1942) - Último corto de Mickey hasta 1947.
  • Mickey and the Beanstalk (1947, fragmento de Fun and Fancy Free).
  • Mickey's Delayed Date (1947) - Primer corto desde 1942.
  • Mickey Down Under (1948).
  • Mickey and the Seal (1948).
  • The Simple Things (1953) - Último corto de Mickey como producciones regulares.
  • Mickey's Christmas Carol (1983) - Primera aparición cinematografica desde 1953.
  • The Prince and the Pauper (1990).
  • Runaway Brain (1995) - Último corto hasta 2013.
  • Fantasía 2000 (1999).
  • La Navidad Mágica de Mickey (2001).
  • El Club de los Villanos (2002).
  • Mickey, Donald, Goofy: The Three Musketeers (2004).
  • Mickey y sus amigos juntos otra Navidad (2004) - Última película hasta la fecha.
  • Get a Horse! (2013) - Último corto hasta la fecha y primer corto mezcla de animación CGI y animación clásica.
Cameos

Series

Mickey también aparece en un episodio de la serie Bonkers, "You Oughta Be In Toons".

Videojuegos

Como otros famosos personajes, Mickey ha protagonizado numerosos videojuegos, como Mickey Mousecapade, en Nintendo Entertainment System; Mickey Mania, en Sega Mega Drive/Sega Genesis, Mega CD/Sega CD, Super Nintendo Entertainment System, y Sony PlayStation, este ùltimo bajo el nombre de Mickey's Wild Adventure; Mickey's Ultimate Challenge en Super Nintendo Entertainment System, Game Boy, Sega Mega Drive/Sega Genesis, Sega Master System, y Sega Game Gear; Disney's Magical Quest en Super Nintendo Entertainment System; Castle of Illusion Starring Mickey Mouse, en Sega Mega Drive/Sega Genesis, Sega Master System, y Sega Game Gear; Land of Illusion Starring Mickey Mouse, en Sega Master System, y Sega Game Gear'; World of Illusion Starring Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck, en Sega Mega Drive/Sega Genesis Mickey Mouse: Magic Wands, en Game Boy, entre otros. A partir del 2000, la serie Disney's Magical Quest fue trasladada a Game Boy Advance, mientras Mickey hacía su entrada en la era de los 128 bits, con Disney's Magical Mirror, un título infantil de Nintendo GameCube. Mickey es un personaje importante de la saga de videojuegos Kingdom Hearts, donde es el rey del castillo Disney y presta su ayuda al protagonista de la saga, Sora. En 2010, Mickey se adentra en una aventura oscura con Epic Mickey de Wii. En 2012, Mickey y Oswald harán una secuela de Epic Mickey llamada Epic Mickey: El retorno de dos héroes para Wii, XBOX 360, PS3, Windows, Mac OS X y Wii U. Aparte tendrá otra secuela para Nintendo 3DS llamada Epic Mickey: Mundo Misterioso.

Apariciones de Mickey Mouse en videojuegos
Título Año Plataforma Distribuidora
Sorcerer's Apprentice 1983 Atari 2600 Atari
Mickey's Space Adventure 1986 Apple II, Commodore 64, DOS, TRS-80 CoCo Sierra On-Line, Inc.
Mickey Mousecapade 1987 NES Capcom U.S.A., Inc.
Mickey Mouse: The Computer Game 1988 Amiga, Amstrad CPC, Atari ST, Commodore 64, ZX Spectrum Gremlin Graphics Software
Mickey Mouse 1989 Game Boy Kotobuki System Co., Ltd.
Castle of Illusion, starring Mickey Mouse 1990 Game Gear, Megadrive, Master System Sega Enterprises
Mickey's Dangerous Chase 1991 Game Boy Capcom
Mickey's Crossword Puzzle Maker 1991 Apple II, DOS Walt Disney Computer Software
Fantasia 1991 Megadrive Sega of America
World of Illusion, starring Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck 1992 Megadrive Sega of America
The Magical Quest, starring Mickey Mouse 1992 Super Nintendo Capcom
Land of Illusion, starring Mickey Mouse 1992 Game Gear, Master System Sega Enterprises
Mickey Mania 1994 Megadrive, PlayStation, Mega CD, Super Nintendo Sony Computer Entertainment
The Great Circus Mystery, starring Mickey and Minnie Mouse 1994 Game Boy Advance, Megadrive, Super Nintendo Capcom
Mickey's Ultimate Challenge 1994 Super Nintendo, Game Boy, Megadrive, Master System, Game Gear Nintendo
Legend of Illusion, starring Mickey Mouse 1995 Game Gear, Master System Sega
Disney's Magical Quest 3, starring Mickey and Donald 1995 Game Boy Advance, Super Nintendo Capcom
Mickey's Wild Adventure 1996 Playstation Disney Interactive
Mickey's Racing Adventure 1999 Game Boy Color Nintendo
Mickey's Speedway USA 2000 Nintendo 64 Nintendo
Mickey's Speedway USA 2001 Game Boy Color Nintendo
Disney's Mickey Saves the Day: 3D Adventure 2001 Microsoft Windows Disney Interactive
Disney's Magical Mirror, starring Mickey Mouse 2002 GameCube Nintendo
The Magical Quest, starring Mickey & Minnie * 2002 Game Boy Advance Nintendo
Disney's Party 2002 GameCube, Game Boy Advance Electronic Arts
Kingdom Hearts 2002 Playstation 2 Squaresoft
Kingdom Hearts: Chain of Memories 2004 Game Boy Advance, Playstation 2 Square Enix, Jupiter
Kingdom Hearts II 2005 Playstation 2 Square Enix
Kingdom Hearts Birth by Sleep 2010 PlayStation Portable Square Enix
Epic Mickey 2010 Wii Disney Interactive Studios
Kingdom Hearts 3D: Dream Drop Distance 2012 Nintendo 3DS Square Enix
Epic Mickey: El retorno de dos héroes 2012 Wii, XBOX 360, PS3, PC, Mac OS X, Wii U Disney Interactive Studios
Epic Mickey: Mundo Misterioso 2012 Nintendo 3DS Disney Interactive Studios
Kingdom Hearts III 2016 PlayStation 4, Xbox One Square Enix

Notas

  1. Bob Thomas, Walt Disney: an American Original, Simon & Schuster, 1976
  2. Kenworthy, John The Hand Behind the Mouse, Disney Editions: New York, 2001.p.54.
  3. «Disney Online Guest Services». Disney Online. Consultado el 31-08-2006.
  4. Iwerks terminaría por cerrar su estudio en 1936, para trabajar en varios proyectos relacionados con la tecnología de la animación, y volvería finalmente a trabajar para Disney en 1940, en el departamento de investigación y desarrollo del estudio, donde fue el responsable de numerosas innovaciones técnicas. Nunca recuperó la posición de preeminencia que tenía en los estudios de su viejo amigo.
  5. Martín (2004), p. 18.
  6. Alessandro Barbera, en su libro Camerata Topolino: L' ideologia di Walt Disney (Roma, Stampa Alternativa, 2001: ver reseña), afirma que Disney fue recibido por Mussolini en dos ocasiones, en 1932 y 1937. En esta página puede escucharse una entrevista radiofónica al autor, en la que expone estos datos. Pierre Assouline, en su biografía de Hergé (Assouline, Pierre: Hergé. Barcelona, Destino, 1997; p. 109), hace referencia a una sola ocasión, que habría tenido lugar en 1935. Parece ser que Mussolini era un gran admirador de Mickey Mouse, y que los cómics de este personaje, llamado en Italia "Topolino", recibieron un trato privilegiado por parte del régimen fascista,
  7. The Golden Age of Mickey Mouse, por Charles Solomon
  8. a b c Fantasia (1940) - Trivia
  9. http://www.blogdecine.com/2006/12/13-el-aprendiz-de-brujo-un-mickey-mouse-con-mayusculas Vídeo de El aprendiz de brujo
  10. fantasia - Definitions from Dictionary.com
  11. FindLaw's Writ - Sprigman: The Mouse That Ate The Public Domain
  12. snopes.com: Daycare Center Murals
  13. Palestinian Media Watch report, 6 de mayo 2007 (Fox news report; original Hamas broadcast, al-Aqsa TV, April 2007; report by the International Herald Tribune/AP, May 8, 2007)
  14. «Hamás emplea un doble del ratón Mickey para difundir su mensaje político entre los niños». Informativos Telecinco. 09-05-2007. http://www.informativos.telecinco.es/raton-mickey/hamas/fatah/mensaje-politico/programa-infantil/palestina/dn_46991.htm. Consultado el 11-05-2007. 
  15. «Retiran de la televisión palestina un Mickey que incitaba a la guerra santa». Xornal. 11-05-2007. http://www.xornal.com/article.php3?sid=20070511104057. Consultado el 11-05-2007. 
  16. Hamas May Revise Jihad-Promoting 'Mickey Mouse' Program, Cybercast News Service , May 9, 2007
  17. Hamas TV airs anti-Israel kids' show despite protest
  18. Farfour Mouse dies in last episode | Jerusalem Post
  19. Disney daughter calls Muslim Mickey evil, The Australian, May 9, 2007
  20. صور انمي من ديزني - منتديات الطاهرة
  21. Аз-детето - българският детски портал, Kid's portal, за всяко дете и всички деца на България
  22. Mickey Mouse < Czech Republic @ Disney Comics Worldwide
  23. DVD: MYŠÁK MICKEY: Co se stalo o vánocích
  24. Miki Hiir < Estonia @ Disney Comics Worldwide

Bibliografía

En español

  • Disney, Walt. Mickey Mouse, Ediciones Toray, S.A., Cerdanyola, 11/1990 ISBN 84-310-3277-4
  • Fonte, Jorge, y Mataix, Olga: Walt Disney. El hombre y el mito. Madrid, T&B Editores, 2001. ISBN 84-95602-05-9
  • Fonte, Jorge: Todo empezó con un ratón. El fantástico mundo de los cortos Disney. Madrid, T&B Editores, 2004. ISBN 84-95602-59-8
  • Bendazzi, Giannalberto: Cartoons. 110 años de cine de animación. Madrid, Ocho y Medio, 2003. ISBN 84-95839-44-X.
  • MARTÍN MARTÍNEZ, Antonio (01/1968). Apuntes para una historia de los tebeos II. La civilización de la imagen (1917-1936). Madrid: Revista de Educación, n.º 195.
  • Thomas, Bob, Walt Disney : personaje inimitable, Iberonet, S.A., Madrid, 01/1995 ISBN 84-88534-42-6

En inglés

  • Iwerks, Leslie and Kenworthy, John. (2001): The Hand Behind the Mouse. Disney Editions..
  • Barrier, Michael (1999). Hollywood Cartoons: American Animation in Its Golden Age. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516729-5
  • Thomas, Bob (1976, 1994). Walt Disney: An American Original New York: Hyperion. ISBN 0-7868-6027-8
  • Thomas, Bob (1991). Disney's Art of Animation: From Mickey Mouse to Beauty and the Beast. New York: Hyperion. ISBN 1-56282-899-1
  • Grant, John, The Encyclopedia of Walt Disney's Animated Characters, Hyperion Books,1998. ISBN 978-0-7868-6336-5
  • Maltin, Leonard (1987): Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons. Penguin Books.
  • Lenburg, Jeff (1993): The Great Cartoon Directors. Da Capo Press.
Source: http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mickey_Mouse

Send "Mickey Mouse" Ringtone to your Cell



More music of cartoon:



More Music


Subscribe

Enter your email address:

Delivered by FeedBurner


facebooktwitterflickryoutubegoogle+